Arifin Lambaga

Mantan Ketua Komite Teknik Sistem Manajemen Anti Penyuapan – Badan Standardisasi Nasional

Dalam pencegahan korupsi saya mengusulkan sebuah perspektif baru bahwa korupsi adalah sebuah ekosistem. Ini adalah analogi biologis alam semesta. Di alam semesta, sebuah tatanan dapat terselenggara berkesinambungan, akibat adanya fungsi-fungsi spesifik makhluk hidup dan lingkungan yang menopangnya.

Sistem pemerintahan sebagai subsistem sosial, analog dengan keadaan itu. Pemerintah beserta aparaturnya menetapkan regulasi, agar unsur ekosistem lainnya berjalan optimal. Produsen menyediakan barang dan jasa konsumsi.  

Seluruhnya akan berjalan sirkular dinamis, manakala fungsi-fungsi dijalani dengan patuh. Tak satu unsur pun di negara menerabas fungsi unsur lainnya. Korupsi dalam perspektif ini terjadi akibat tak dipatuhinya fungsi-fungsi yang telah disepakati. Misalnya, pemerintah turut memainkan fungsi produksi, produsen turut menyusun regulasi, atau konsumen yang berupaya mengatur sendiri takaran konsumsinya dengan mengelabui regulasi.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

Dalam praktiknya, permainan penyalahgunaan wewenang, tak bisa dilakukan satu pihak. Ada tuntutan melibatkan pihak lain sebagai bagian jejaring: saling mendukung, kemudian saling mengunci. Antoni (2013) melalui disertasi doktoralnya “Hubungan Saling Mengunci Sebagai Bentuk Komunikasi Korupsi”, memperlihatkan adanya bentuk kedekatan ini. Dan untuk mempertahankan “keamanan” pihak-pihak yang terlibat, terjadi mekanisme saling mengunci, interlocking directorate. Ini dilakukan sebagai proteksi ketika ada pihak yang dikhawatirkan melanggar kesepakatan. Implikasinya, terjalin relasi yang mengaburkan peran khas masing-masing pihak dalam ekosistem.

Lebih lanjut Antoni, menyebutkan sejumlah latar belakang hubungan kedekatan yang bersifat informal jadi dasar terbentuknya jaringan komunikasi interlocking directorate dimana telah memuluskan berlangsungnya praktek-praktek korupsi. Sejumlah latar belakang kedekatan yang ditemukan dalam penelitian ini adalah hubungan keluarga, pertemanan, dan hubungan pekerjaan sebelumnya.

Dalam perspektif lain, sebagaimana ungkapan antropolog, perilaku memberi hadiah, adalah budaya Indonesia yang telah mengakar lama. Dan ternyata, ini bukan hanya khas Indonesia. Bangsa-bangsa Asia lain juga suka mempertukarkan hadiah.

Terdapat dua makna pemberian hadiah. Pertama, sebagai ungkapan turut berbahagia pemberi hadiah atas pencapaian prestasi, kebahagiaan maupun berkah, yang dialami pihak lain. Yang kedua, hadiah dimaknai sebagai ungkapan terima kasih, atas peran yang telah dijalankan pihak lain. Implikasi makna kedua dari hadiah, mereka yang tak memberi hadiah dianggap tak tahu berterima kasih. Dan sanksi etis bagi yang tak tahu berterima kasih, dapat dianggap “tak berbudaya”.

Dalam konteks suap dan korupsi, budaya berterima kasih makin sering dirupakan dalam pemberian hadiah. Momennya sering sengaja ditukar, memberi hadiah sebagai ungkapan turut bersyukur, namun fungsinya sebagai ungkapan terima kasih. Praktiknya, seseorang yang telah diuntungkan pihak lain secara tidak sah, menyampaikan rasa terima kasihnya dalam bentuk hadiah, misalnya pada event syukuran yang dijalani pihak lain. 

Jika dua perspektif di atas dikaitkan, sangat rasional dalam praktik kenegaraan terdapat pihak yang ingin menguntungkan dirinya sendiri, dengan cara memanfaatkan regulator. Pihak ini menghendaki dilonggarkannya fungsi mengatur dan menegakkan aturan. Agar regulator bersedia mengabaikan pelanggaran, suap diberikan sebagai hadiahnya. Mekanisme interlocking directorate, mulai terbentuk.

Produsen maupun konsumen yang menerabas regulasi, melakukannya lewat orang yang telah dikenal, misalnya mantan bawahan, kerabat, sahabat atau orang yang telah diberi jasa di waktu-waktu sebelumnya. Dengan pihak yang telah dikenal, dibangun relasi saling memberi, saling menerima dan saling melindungi. Manakala terdapat pihak yang terdesak oleh penegakan hukum, mekanisme saling melindungi, berkembang jadi saling mengunci.

“Anda membuka kedok kami, kami buka kedok anda. Maka sebaiknya saling melindungi.” Para pihak pun saling terkunci.

Jika diurai dengan saksama, kata kunci jaringan saling mengunci dalam korupsi diawali suap. Maka ketika suap dapat dicegah pada kesempatan pertama, tercegah pula mekanisme pembentukan jejaring yang kompleks.

Persoalannya sebagaimana uraian sebelumnya, suap sering terbalut sebagai praktik budaya. Suap datang dalam wujud hadiah. Maka dalam memerangi korupsi yang berubah jadi jaringan saling mengunci, dapat dipertimbangkan introduksi budaya baru. Yaitu budaya baru dalam memandang hadiah bahwa tak semua hadiah yang diungkapkan dalam momen bahagia merupakan ungkapan turut bahagia. Sangat boleh jadi itu adalah suap, atas permintaan praktik ilegal yang akan diminta pemberi hadiah di kemudian hari.

Hadiah-hadiah tertentu memiliki tendensi dilonggarkanya fungsi yang telah disepakati dalam ekosistem. Dengan budaya baru ini pula, setiap pihak tidak perlu khawatir dianggap tak berterima kasih, ketika hadiah tidak diberikan atas peran wajib yang telah dijalankan regulator.

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